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Although the study used the intention to treat analysis, when we removed the incidents where the use of the CEW was unsuccessful (n = 14) (thereby requiring subsequent alternative force options—typically physical control), the safety profile of the CEW rose to 88.7% (i.e., no injury or minor injury to subjects only). - Recommendations for the Use of the Taser – by Fabrice Czarnecki, M. (10/04) IACP Legal Officers' Section 2004 Presentation Materials (Los Angeles, CA). (12/17/09) Report of the Maryland Attorney General's (Douglas F. (09/09) Recommended Guidelines for the Use of Conducted Energy Devices, Municipal Police Training Council, Division of Criminal Justice Services, State of New York. Provincial Guidelines for the Use of Conducted Energy Weapons. (03/05/08) (Canada) Nova Scotia, Conducted Energy Device (CED) Review, Nova Scotia Department of Justice. Some CED related findings, statements include: Page 8-3: “Across 12 agencies and more than 24,000 use of force cases, the odds of a suspect being injured decreased by almost 60 percent when a CED was used.” Page 8-3: ” Controlling for other types of force and resistance, the use of CEDs significantly reduced the probability of injuries.” Page 8-4: “In juxtaposition to these observations, our findings consistently show a significant reduction in the risk of injury to suspects when CEDs or OC spray is used.” Page 8-4: “In very rare cases, people have died after being pepper sprayed or shocked with a Taser, although no clear evidence exists that the weapons themselves caused the deaths.” Page 8-5: “According to the survey results, 45 percent of agencies allow for the use of OC spray to overcome passive resistance (suspect sits down and refuses to comply with police commands), while another 20-30 percent of agencies authorize the use of a CED under these circumstances.” Page 8-5: “If injury reduction is the primary goal, then agencies that authorize OC spray and/or CEDs to overcome defensive resistance are clearly at an advantage based upon the results from the current study.” Page 8-9-10:” Another important CED-related investigation would be a case study of deaths in custody when the use of a CED was involved and a matched sample of deaths in custody when a CED was not involved.

("IPICD") - For information on sudden death, agitated delirium, excited delirium, medical/scientific aspects of Electronic Control Devices (ECDs): - For a large number of TASER® ECD related documents go to the IPICD website (articles page) - IPICD 2nd Annual Restraint Symposium - April 27-29, 2015 - Las Vegas, Nevada - 2015; Institute for the Prevention of In-Custody Deaths (IPICD) 10th Annual Symposium - November 16-18, 2015 - Las Vegas, Nevada. The study examines the phenomenon of sudden death as it relates to electromuscular disruption technology and TASER ECDs by constructing 213 cases studies, dating from 1983 through 2005, and analyzing information available from news accounts, police reports, and autopsies. Because we decide otherwise, Woods Cross City may be liable for Officer Davis's actions. Or., October 1, 2010) - ECD probe deployment causing fall from 6-7 foot high fence on fleeing person was objectively unreasonable, Quoting plaintiff's expert "Anyone trained to operate and carry a TASER [ECD] in the field should, by TASER International standards, clearly understand that the application of the TASER [ECD] to a suspect who is high off the ground would be considered a deadly force application in that the potential result of the particular use of force could cause serious bodily injury or even death." - "Snauer continued fleeing, and began climbing over a six or seven foot high wooden fence. The Court will view the use of a Taser as an intermediate or medium, though not insignificant, quantum of force that causes temporary painand immobilization.” p. Alternatively, the law was not so clearly developed that a reasonable officer in the Defendants’ position would know that their conduct was unlawful. He argues that from his point of view at the time of the incident, he knew Richard Brown's vehicle (plaintiff's husband, plaintiff was the passenger) had failed to stop for officers and Brown had not complied with officer commands. (04/16/07) Electronic Control Devices: Liability and Training Aspects, by Edmund Zigmund, 2007 (5) AELE Mo. Madison (WI Police Department Policy Manual, 6-200 The Use of Non-Deadly Force (PDF page 138/299), ECD (pages 140-142).Study Framework: The study is directed by a steering group with representation from NIJ, the College of American Pathologists, the Centers for Disease Control, and the National Association of Medical Examiners. (04/07) Taser Devices and Other Electro-shock Weapons, (MRSC) Municipal Research and Services Center of Washington. The argument that is made by law enforcement is that most if not all of the subjects who died when shocked by a CED would have died if the officers had controlled and arrested them in a more traditional hands-on fight.To support the study, the steering group appointed a medical panel comprised of physicians, medical examiners and other relevant specialists in cardiology, emergency medicine, epidemiology, pathology, and toxicology. (01/18/07) TASER Use Guidelines, OLR Research Report (2007-R-0068). At this point, the argument is rhetorical, and research is needed to understand the differences and/or similarities in cases where suspects lived and suspects died in police custody, including deaths where a CED may or may not be involved.” (08/23/10) TASER ECD Risk Management Injury Reduction Power Point Presentation (09/09) Comparing safety outcomes in police use-of-force cases for law enforcement agencies tha have deployed conducted energy devices and a matched comparison group that have not: A quasi-experimental evaluation.D., NIJ Journal, National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, U. There was general consensus that officers were using TASER [ECD] as the first option. Plaintiffs therefore have not raised a genuine issue of material fact as to causation, and the Court will grant Defendant [TASER International’s] motion for summary judgment." The Court also ruled to exclude or limit Plaintiff's principle causation experts. Note, that in (OH) Mc Cullaugh 5 sheriff’s deputies have been criminally charged with various crimes, including one deputy on a murder charge. The Medical Examiner failed to present any evidence on the use and effect of TASER Devices.” “Even though the Medical Examiner's conclusions are entitled to much weight, and assuming a nonbinding presumption in favor of the Medical Examiner, the Plaintiffs have proven their claims for changing the reports of autopsy and death certificates on the three individuals by more than a preponderance of the evidence. We attribute much of this decrease to the department-wide deployment of the Taser.This was, perhaps, borne out of growing confidence in the system over time and a reduced likelihood of injury to both fficers and subjects (actual and perceived) - as well as the accompanying potential to reduce the likelihood of complaint and post- incident investigation. The Court found in part that an expert lacks any objective medical source linking the eyewitness testimony and his opinions as to what caused Lomax’s death. Here are some of the highlights from the Court’s Order: “There is simply no medical, scientific, or electrical evidence to support the conclusion that the TASER X26 had anything to do with the death of Dennis S. The multiple number of experts offered by the Plaintiffs in the area of sudden and unexpected death while law enforcement attempted to obtain custody, provided overwhelming credible medical and scientific evidence to support their positions.” “The experts provided evidence that Dennis S. Order Granting Defendant City of Fresno's Motion for Summary Judgment, See attached 41 page ORDER. Officer Herring’s the 1st, 2nd and 3rd use of the TASER device were not excessive force 2. Our review of use of force reporting and investigative files showed that the Taser replaced other types of force in the majority of incidents.

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